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Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) Dyspnea Scale

The MMRC Dyspnea Scale Assesses Patient's Level Of Dyspnea


Updated June 06, 2014

Written or reviewed by a board-certified physician. See About.com's Medical Review Board.

The Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale, or MMRC, uses a simple grading system to assess a patient's level of dyspnea -- shortness of breath.

The MMRC is used to help calculate BODE Index, a tool for predicting life expectancy of someone with COPD.

MMRC Dyspnea Scale

Grade Description of Breathlessness
0 I only get breathless with strenuous exercise.
1 I get short of breath when hurrying on level ground or walking up a slight hill.
2 On level ground, I walk slower than people of the same age because of breathlessness, or have to stop for breath when walking at my own pace.
3 I stop for breath after walking about 100 yards or after a few minutes on level ground.
4 I am too breathless to leave the house or I am breathless when dressing.


Dennis E. Doherty, MD, FCCP, Mark H. Belfer, DO, FAAFP, Stephen A. Brunton, MD Leonard Fromer, MD, Charlene M. Morris, MPAS, PA-C, Thomas C. Snader, PharmD, CGP, FASCP. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Consensus Recommendations for Early Diagnosis and Treatment. Journal of Family Practice, November, 2006.

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